In the recent years, fiber optics is steadily replacing copper wires. It is a better and apt means of transmitting communication signals. Today, fiber optics cable span across long distances between local phone systems. In addition, it also serves as the backbone for many networking systems including:
- Cable TV services
- University campus
- Office buildings
- Industrial plants
- Electric utility companies
- Internet connectivity
- Stereo systems
- Telephone systems
Fiber Optics Cable use pulses of light to transfer data using the event of total internal reflection. The cable has a coating of plastic. This protects the cable from exposure to heat, cold, and other weather atrocities. It also protects the cable from electromagnetic interference and ultraviolet rays of sun. These cables are the most reliable and fastest data transfer cables on the planet.
A fiber optics cable system is very similar to the metal wire system. The fiber optics is replacing the metal and copper wire system. The basic difference is that fiber optics uses light to transmit data; whereas metal wires do not. It sends the data down the fiber lines instead of using electronic pulses for transmitting data like in the metal wires.
Fiber Optics Cables serve the purpose of connecting and transferring data across continents. They are fast and they can carry large capacity. The signals have higher strength and need least maintenance.
Types of Fiber Optics Cables
There are three types of fiber optic cable commonly in use. They are single mode, multimode, and plastic optical fiber or photonic fiber. Transparent glass or plastic fiber allows the guiding of light from one end to the other with minimal loss is the most efficient.
In a single mode fiber, the core diameter reduces to few wavelengths of the incoming light. For a beam with 0.55 μm of wavelength, the core diameter must be of the order of 4.5 μm.
Under this situation, the core is so small that only the primary mode can travel inside the fiber. Given the wave broadcast of the light inside the cavity, there is no other way for the light to take longer optical paths.
In this fiber, the core diameter is much greater than the wavelength of the transmitted light. The transmission of number of modes is simultaneous. The possible ways in which, light travels inside the fiber is relative to the fiber modes. The primary mode travels parallel to the axis of the fiber. Therefore, it takes the minimum time to reach the end of the fiber.
When an incoming beam enters with an angle relative to the fiber axis, the light follows a longer path. Thus, it takes a little longer to reach the end. When you increase the core diameter, you can increase the transmission of number of modes.
In photonic fibers, the number of cavities around the core guides the transmission of light. The core may be present in a glass or even an air cavity! These are new fiber optic cables available in the market. For the moment, their performances are still under the observation for astronomical applications.
Fiber Optics Cable Connectors
Fiber optics cable connectors make flexible connections possible. Fiber optics cable connectors are generally in use where ﬂexibility is in need. Fiber optics cable connectors are also a necessity at termination points when an optical signal routes.
Polish and Epoxy Connectors
Polish and Epoxy style connectors were originally in use for termination. These are still under very high rate of extensive installation. These connectors offer a wide range of choices including SC, ST, LC, FC, SMA, D4, MT-RJ, and MU. Some of their advantages are present in the list below:
Sturdiness - skill to bear higher levels of environmental and mechanical stress
Cable size - Usability with cables of varying diameters, from big to small
Multiple Connectors - Can handle single and multiple cables (up to 24) in a single connector
Polish and No-Epoxy or Pre-Loaded Epoxy Connectors
The main advantage of these connectors is that they are easy to install. This translates to lower skill levels in need to handle them. These connectors can have further division as follows:
- Connectors without epoxy
- Connectors with preloaded epoxy
The fiber has stabilization by an internal crimp mechanism and these connectors are available in SC, ST, and FC styles.
No Polish and No-Epoxy
Simple design and low cost are the hallmarks of these connectors. The result of training and installation is a higher cost reduction. Moreover, this also enables fast restorations. They are available in SC, ST, LC, FC, and MT-RJ connector styles.
Numerous connectors, both standard and proprietary, are in use in the field of telecommunication equipment, data lines, television, cable, and other industrial fields. The connectors described in this text are the ones that are under extensive use in the past. Many are still under use this very day.